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:: Volume 22, Issue 2 (1-2017) ::
3 2017, 22(2): 164-176 Back to browse issues page
The Effect of Abnormal Head Posture on Facial Deformation
M Khorrami-Nejad , MR Akbari , F Askarizadeh , M Mohammadi
Abstract:   (1513 Views)
Facial asymmetry is a condition in which the two sides of the face are not completely alike and similar. There are different causes for facial asymmetry including abnormal head posture (AHP), trauma, facial muscle palsy, facial macrosomia, craniosynostosis, phakomatosis, and progressive facial atrophy. AHP can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Congenital muscular AHP is the most common cause of AHP in children and has effects on the development and progression of facial asymmetry in children very similar to ocular AHP. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history، physical examination، and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry، as well as for planning an appropriate treatment. It has been well-documented that patients with congenital superior oblique palsy tilt their head to prevent diplopia. Therefore، there is a chance of developing facial asymmetry such as midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle، with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side in a long term AHP. Such facial asymmetries do not develop in the acquired type of AHP. Therefore, facial asymmetry should help to confirm chronicity and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Correcting the torticollis through strabismus surgery or other non-surgical methods before critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry.
The purpose of this study is to review the effect of abnormal head posture on facial asymmetry. In this review، articles or books that were published from January 1970 to January 2015 were searched, assessed and appraised. Additionally، quantitative and qualitative evidences with regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria were gathered، summarized، discussed and concluded.
Keywords: Abnormal Head Posture, Dissociated Vertical Deviation, Duan Retraction Syndrome, Facial Asymmetry, Superior Oblique Palsy
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Ophthalmology
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Khorrami-Nejad M, Akbari M, Askarizadeh F, Mohammadi M. The Effect of Abnormal Head Posture on Facial Deformation. 3. 2017; 22 (2) :164-176
URL: http://binajournal.org/article-1-870-en.html

Volume 22, Issue 2 (1-2017) Back to browse issues page
مجله چشم‌پزشکی بینا Bina Journal of Ophthalmology
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